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  • Writer's pictureJames Dean

Exploring the Moon: Abundant Resources Valued at $1 Quadrillion and Clean Fusion Energy

The Moon, our celestial neighbor, has long fascinated humanity with its mysterious allure and potential for exploration. While the idea of lunar colonization might seem like a concept straight out of science fiction, recent advancements in space technology have made it increasingly feasible. One of the driving factors behind this renewed interest in the Moon is its abundance of minerals and natural resources, which hold the promise of supporting future human settlements and even serving as a launching pad for further space exploration.

It is likely we will have a small colony of engineers and scientists living on the moon by 2028 writes market researcher, James Dean. The aerospace technology advancements are moving at a very rapid pace now. Nearly every leading country including the United States, China, Russia and India are focused on the strategic goal of colonizing the Arctic circle and the Moon. Both strategic locations maintain enormous wealth in natural resources and open a gateway to trade routes that provide significant opportunities over the next 100 years. A few companies to note that are developing equipment to lead the race to the Moon include;

  • Bechtel: A global leader in engineering, construction and project management. They are collaborating with NASA to develop technologies for building habitats on the Moon.

  • Honeybee Robotics: This company designs and manufactures equipment for remote operations and extreme environments.  They are developing robots that could be used to construct lunar infrastructure and extract resources.

  • Intuitive Machines: This company is working on lunar landers and other spacecraft that could be used to transport people and equipment to the Moon.

  • Orbit Fab: This company is developing in-space manufacturing technology that could be used to create building materials, spare parts, and other products on the Moon.

  • SpaceX: This private spaceflight company is already launching rockets and spacecraft for NASA.  They have plans to develop a Starship launch vehicle and spacecraft that could be used for lunar missions.

These are just a few examples, and there are many other companies involved in developing technologies for lunar colonization. Overall, the economic financial opportunity on the Moon is enormous. For example, I estimate based on research data, the wealth of resources on the Moon is perhaps, $1 quadrillion over the next 100 years or more, particularly given the value and importance of Helium 3 as a fuel in the clean energy nuclear fusion process expected to be commercially available by 2028. However, Helium 3 (He-3) is very rare on Earth, therefore the Moon is a critically important resource to extract He-3 and other rare Earth metals.

"Helium-3 on the moon is worth about $4 billion per ton. It's the most valuable thing in space," Gerald Kulcinski, professor emeritus of nuclear engineering at the University of Wisconsin and former director of the Fusion Technology Institute, says.

Scientists estimate that just 25 tons of Helium-3 could power the United States for an entire year. This much Helium-3 could be transported from the Moon to the Earth in a ship the size of the recently retired space shuttle. If the United States were able to mine the Helium-3 on the Moon, it might solve our clean energy problems for thousands of years.

For example, if there was one million tons of He-3 on the moon divided by 25 tons per year equals 40,000 years of clean fusion energy to power the United States

Another example, if there was one million tons of He-3 on the moon divided by 100 tons per year equals 10,000 years of clean fusion energy to power the entire World i.e. Life on Earth

What is Helium 3 (He-3)?

Helium-3 (He-3) is a rare isotope of helium that holds the key to clean energy production through nuclear fusion which is already being produced in advanced research centers.

Here's why Helium 3 is so important:

  • Fusion Fuel:  Nuclear fusion is already showing promise in lab experiments that replicate the power of the Sun, generating vast amounts of energy. He-3 is considered an ideal fuel for fusion reactors due to several advantages:

  • Clean Burning:  Unlike traditional nuclear fission, He-3 fusion does not produce long-lasting radioactive waste.

  • Efficiency:  Fusion of He-3 with Deuterium (another isotope of hydrogen) is a particularly efficient reaction, releasing more energy than the energy needed to initiate it.

  • Neutron-Free:  This reaction releases protons instead of neutrons. Neutrons can damage reactor components, making He-3 fusion potentially easier to manage.

  • Scarcity on Earth:  Unfortunately, He-3 is very rare on Earth. And most He-3 on Earth is a byproduct of radioactive decay and escapes into the atmosphere. However, He-3 and other rare Earth metals have shown to be abundant on the Moon.

  • Lunar Abundance:  The Moon is bombarded by the solar wind, which implants He-3 into the lunar regolith (soil). Scientists estimate the Moon holds millions of tons of He-3, potentially enough to fuel fusion reactors for centuries.

However, there are still significant challenges to overcome:

  • Technical Hurdles:  Building commercially viable fusion reactors is a complex scientific and engineering challenge, regardless of the fuel source.

  • Lunar Mining:  Extracting He-3 from the Moon and transporting it back to Earth for use in fusion reactors is rapidly becoming more economically feasible.

Despite these challenges, He-3 on the Moon is likely a game-changer for future clean energy production. Research on fusion technology and potential lunar resource extraction continues, making it a topic of significant interest in the space exploration community.

And I expect by 2028, the promise of clean fusion energy to be commercially available. For example, innovative companies like Helion Energy are pushing the envelope when it comes to clean nuclear fusion energy production. Helion Energy is an American fusion research company based in Everett, Washington. Their reactor design is based on a field-reversed configuration (FRC) which they believe could be more efficient than other fusion reactor designs. Helion is also working on developing ways to breed Helium-3 from other isotopes of hydrogen, such as deuterium. Watch Video Learn About Pulsed Fusion Clean Energy ...

Learn More About Minerals and Natural Resources on the Moon:

The lunar surface is rich in a variety of minerals and resources that could prove invaluable for sustaining human life and supporting industrial activities. Among the most notable resources are:

  • Helium-3: One of the most sought-after resources on the Moon is helium-3, a rare isotope that could potentially serve as a clean and efficient fuel for nuclear fusion reactors. Unlike traditional nuclear fission, which produces radioactive waste, helium-3 fusion is proving to be a viable clean energy solution and produces no harmful byproducts. The Moon is believed to have accumulated significant deposits of helium-3 over billions of years from the solar wind.

  • Water Ice: Recent discoveries have revealed the presence of water ice in permanently shadowed regions near the Moon's poles. This discovery is revolutionary because water is essential for sustaining human life, providing drinking water, growing crops, and generating oxygen for breathing. Additionally, water can be split into hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as rocket fuel and for life support systems.

  • Rare Earth Elements: The Moon is also contains significant deposits of rare earth elements (REEs) including Lithium (Li), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), silicon (Si), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti), scandium, yttrium and the 15 lanthanides which are critical for modern technology, including smartphones, renewable energy systems, and electric vehicles. These elements are relatively scarce on Earth and often subject to geopolitical tensions, making the lunar supply potentially valuable for future industries.

  • Regolith: The lunar regolith, the layer of loose, fragmented material covering the Moon's surface, contains various minerals and metals, including aluminum, titanium, and iron. While these materials are abundant on Earth, extracting them on the Moon could be more cost-effective due to the lack of environmental regulations and the reduced energy requirements of lunar mining.

Watch Video Learn About Colonizing the Moon ...

Countries Leading the Charge:

Today, several countries and space agencies are aggressively exploring the colonization of the Moon, driven by a combination of scientific curiosity, economic potential, and strategic considerations. Some of the key players in this emerging space race include:

  • United States: NASA has been at the forefront of lunar exploration efforts for decades. Under the Artemis program, NASA aims to return astronauts to the Moon by the mid-2020s, with the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable lunar presence. Private companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin are also developing lunar exploration technologies and have expressed interest in lunar resource utilization.

  • France: CNES, The National Center for Space Studies is the French national space agency headquartered in central Paris and it comes under the supervision of the French Ministries of Defense and Research. Also note ITER located in France is the world's largest fusion experiment. Thirty-five nations are collaborating to build and operate the ITER Tokamak, one for the most complex machines ever invented by mankind.

  • China: China's space agency, CNSA, has been steadily expanding its space capabilities and aims to establish a crewed lunar base in the coming decades. The Chang'e program has already achieved significant milestones, including the successful deployment of robotic rovers and landers to the lunar surface.

  • Russia: Roscosmos, the Russian space agency, has outlined plans for lunar exploration, including crewed missions and the establishment of a lunar base. Collaboration with international partners, including NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA), could play a crucial role in realizing these ambitions. Note the Russians are already working closely with the Chinese on colonizing the Moon.

  • European Union: The European Space Agency (ESA) has been actively involved in lunar exploration initiatives, contributing scientific expertise and technological capabilities to international efforts. ESA's participation in missions like Artemis demonstrates Europe's commitment to space exploration and utilization.

  • India: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has demonstrated its capabilities with successful lunar missions, including the Chandrayaan missions. India has expressed interest in future lunar exploration and resource utilization, leveraging its indigenous space technology and expertise.


The Moon holds immense geopolitical influence and economic potential as a repository of valuable minerals and resources that could support future human settlements for centuries and unlock new frontiers in space exploration. While challenges remain, including technological hurdles and international cooperation, the prospect of lunar colonization represents a bold step forward in humanity's quest to expand beyond Earth's confines.

As countries and space agencies on Earth race to stake their claim on the lunar surface, the dream of a human colony on the Moon draws ever closer to reality. But a much greater emphasis on peaceful collaboration is the key to a sustained healthy population on Earth, and the Moon could hold the fate of humanity well into the future. What is learned along the way will change the course of mankind for centuries, as we are truly in this journey of species survival together. Without a doubt, we have now embarked on a path to inhabit the cosmos.

About Author

James E Dean, author / eBusiness expert is located in Northeast Ohio with over 35 years of experience in Business Development. He is a graduate of Boston University. J Dean leads a team helping entrepreneurs, corporations and non-profits to succeed in a changing world. Questions contact 440-596-3380 or Email


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